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This page contains information and settings options for DuckStation, settings will need to be adjusted depending on the machine that DuckStation is running on. Please be aware that enabling some settings can have some side effects.

General Settings

Most of the settings in here you do not need to change unless you want DuckStation to start in Fullscreen mode, enable the UI in Fullscreen mode or Enable Discord Presence.

Controller Backend

You may change your Controller Backend from SDL to Dinput or Xinput if your controller is not mapping correctly, if you change your Controller Backend from SDL to Xinput or Dinput, please remap all the controls in Controller Settings.

BIOS Settings

Allows you to select a BIOS version for the respective regions you wish to support (Japan, US/Canada, Europe/Australia). You must have at least one valid BIOS file for DuckStation to run and boot games. It is recommended to dump a BIOS from your own PS1 console. (See the BIOS page for more information)

Please do not ask us for BIOS files, they are illegal to share so we cannot provide them.

Console Settings

For the best stability and compatibility with games it is recommended to leave these options intact.

Overclocking Emulation

You can overclock the emulation by enabling clock speed control and moving the slider to the right. Please note this can speed up some games much faster than intended and could cause stability issues.

Recommended Value: 100%

CD-ROM Emulation

You can change the Read Speedup to improve the loading times in some games. Seek Speedup can also be changed to improve the loading times in some games. Be warned these options may break or crash some games that do not expect the CD-ROM to operate faster.

Async Readahead Recommended Value: 8 Sectors
Read Speedup Speeds up CD-ROM reading by the specified factor. This option is ignored when audio is playing. May improve loading speed in some games but can break other games.
Seek Speedup Reduces the time the simulated CD-ROM sled moves to different areas of a disc. Can improve loading times at the risk of crashing games which do not expect the CD-ROM to operate faster.

Emulation Settings

If you do not intend to use the Rewinding feature of the emulator, these settings can be left alone.

Game List Settings

For adding the search directories for your games.

Hotkey Settings

For setting shortcut keys for various emulator functions.

Controller Settings

Allows you to set the DuckStation key/controller binds for Xbox, DualShock 4, DualShock 5 and other controller interfaces. Most controllers will use the Analog Controller (DualShock) controller type.

Compatible Controllers

For a list of tested compatible controllers, please visit the Controllers page.

Memory Card Settings

DuckStation's handling of memory cards.

Memory Card Type DuckStation default is Separate Card Per Game, you can also Share Between All Games or disable by selecting No Memory Card. 2 Memory Card slots are available.
Shared Memory Card Path The directory Memory Cards are stored, default is saved as the same name of the game title.

Display Settings

Make changes regarding the Renderer, Aspect ratio and some other options here.


Renderer here is set to D3D11 by default for the best compatibility, see chart below for options.

Windows 10 Linux Notes
D3D11 Recommended ?? High Compatibility
D3D12 Not Recommended ?? Works but can cause problems
Vulkan Recommended ?? High compatability
OpenGL Not Recommended ?? Recommended for older machines
Software Not Recommended ?? Best Compatibility, Slowest mode with no enhancements
Threaded Rendering Use a second CPU thread for drawing graphics for speed improvement, only available with Software Renderer.
Threaded Presentation Presents frames on background CPU thread to improve performance in Vulkan Renderer. Fast Forwarding or Vsync must be disabled.
VSync Match DuckStations refresh rate with your monitor/screens refresh rate. Automatically disables when it is not possible.
Sync to Host Refresh Rate Adjusts DuckStations emulation speed to match the hosts refresh rate when VSync and Audio Resampling settings are enabled resulting in smoothest animations possible. Automatically disables when it is not possible.
Optimal Frame Pacing Ensures every frame the console renders is displayed to the screen. If you're getting audio glitches or have difficulty maintaining full speed, try disabling this option.
Use Blit Swap Chain May be required for some streaming applications, or to uncap framerates on some systems. Usually results in slower performance.

Screen Display

Aspect Ratio is 4:3 for all PS1 games by default, most monitors are 16:9 as standard, you can enable the Widescreen hack in Enhancement Settings to correct the stretching/warping which also gives a larger view in 3D games though this may not work in all games, 2D games and games with pre-rendered backgrounds may not work as expected.

Aspect Ratio Changes the Aspect Ratio of the game being played, the default is Auto (Game Native).
Crop Sets how much of the area not normally visible on consumer TV's to hide.
Downsampling Downsamples the rendered image before displaying it, can improver overall quality in mixed 2D/3D games. Keep disabled for 3D games.

Recommended Value: Auto (Game Native)

Enhancement Settings

These options control enhancements which can improve visuals compared to the original console.

Rendering Enhancements

Internal Resolution Scale Enhances the resolution of rendered 3D polygons and lines, will only apply when using a Hardware Renderer (D3D11, Vulkan, ect), set the scale depending on the resolution of the screen the game is being played on.
Texture Filtering Smooths out the blockyness of a texture on a 3D object/surface by using filtering, Will have a greater effect on higher resolutions.
True Colour Dithering Produces nicer looking colour gradients at the cost of making some colours look slightly different, Most games are compatible with this option, only applies to Hardware Renderers (D3D11, Vulkan, ect).
Scaled Dithering Scales dithering in relation to Resolution Scale to make it less obvious in higher resolutions, recommended to leave checked, only applies to Hardware Renderers (D3D11, Vulkan, ect).
Widescreen Hack Essentially increases field of view for the chosen display aspect ratio in 3d games, for 2D games or games with pre-rendered backgrounds this will not work as expected. May not be compatible with all games.
Software Renderer Readbacks Parallel VRAM readbacks for the software renderer. May result in greater performance when using enhancements with Hardware Renderer (D3D11, Vulkan, ect) on some systems.

Display Enhancements

Disable Interlacing (Force progressive scan) Forces the emulator to render in progressive mode instead of interlaced, usually safe to enable. May not be compatible with all games.
Force NTSC Timings Forces PAL games to run at 60Hz instead of 50Hz, results in the game running approximately 17% faster. May not affect variable frame rate games.
Force 4:3 for 24-Bit Display Switches to 4:3 Aspect Ratio when showing 24-Bit content, Usually FMV's.
Chroma Smoothing for 24-Bit Display Smooths out colour blockyness during transitions with 24-bit content, usually FMV's, Only applies to Hardware Renderers (D3D11, Vulkan, ect).

PGXP (Precision Geometry Transform Pipeline)

Geometry Correction Enabling reduces the wobbly polygons and warping textures common in PS1 games. May not work for all games.
Texture Correction Straightens out warped textures, Geometry Correction must be enabled to use this.
Depth Buffer Attempts to reduce polygon fighting by testing pixels against depth values from PGXP, can work well in some games but has low compatibility.
Culling Correction Reduces the number of holes in geometry, Geometry Correction must be enabled to use this.
Preserve Projection Precision Adds additional precision to PGXP, can improve visuals in some games.
CPU Mode Required for PGXP to correct wobble in some games. Caution: very high performance cost.

Post Processing

More information coming soon.

Audio Settings

The settings in this panel can be left alone a majority of the time, if you are encountering issues please try using the SDL Backend.

Advanced Settings

Advanced settings for the DuckStation emulator. It is not recommended to change these settings unless you know what you are doing.

Dump Replaceable VRAM Writes Tick to enable dumping of texture files. Default folder is \Documents\DuckStation\dump\textures\
Enable VRAM Write Texture Replacement Tick to enable loading of replacement texture files. Default folder is \Documents\DuckStation\textures\
Preload Texture Replacements Tick to enable preloading of texture files. This ensures you'll see the changes (see above)